Showing posts with label Temperature Sensor. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Temperature Sensor. Show all posts

Smart Heater Controller

Category: Home and Garden, Temperature Sensor
Minuscule circuit of the electronic heater controller presented here is built around the renowned 3-Pin Integrated Temperature Sensor LM35 (IC1) from NSC. Besides, a popular Bi Mos Op-amp CA3140 (IC2) is used to sense the status of the temperature sensor IC1, which also controls a solid-state switch formed by a high power Triac BT136(T1). Resistive type electric heater at the output of T1 turns to ON and to OFF states as instructed by the control circuit.

This gadget can be used as an efficient and safe heater in living rooms, incubators, heavy electric/electronic instrument etc. Normally, when the temperature is below a set value (Decided by multi-turn preset pot P1), voltage at the inverting input (pin2) of IC1 is lower than the level at the non-inverting terminal (pin3). So, the comparator output (at pin 6) of IC1 goes high and T1 is triggered to supply mains power to the desired heater element.

Electronic Heater Controller Circuit Schematic.


CA3140 (IC2) is highly sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD). Please follow proper IC Handling Procedures.

When the temperature increases above the set value, say 50-60 degree centigrade, the inverting pin of IC1 also goes above the non-inverting pin and hence the comparator output falls. This stops triggering of T1 preventing the mains supply from reaching the heater element. Fortunately, the threshold value is user-controllable and can be set anywhere between 0 to 100 Degree centigrade.

The circuit works off stable 9Volt dc supply, which may be derived from the mains supply using a standard ac mains adaptor (100mA at 9V) or using a traditional capacitive voltage divider assembly. You can find such power circuits elsewhere in this website.
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PC Heat Monitor

Category: PC Related, Sensor, Temperature Sensor
The PC processor generates very high temperature during its operation which is dissipated by the large heat sink placed above the processor. If the heat sink assembly is not tight with the processor or the cooling fan is not working, PC enters into the Thermal shutdown mode and will not boot up. If the PC is not entering into thermal shutdown, the high temperature can destroy the processor. This simple circuit can be placed inside the PC to monitor the temperature near the processor. It gives warning beeps when the temperature near the heat sink increases abnormally. This helps to shutdown the PC immediately before it enters into Thermal shutdown.

Circuit Project: PC Heat Monitor Circuit 

The circuit uses a Piezo element (one used in Buzzer) as the heat sensor. The piezo crystals reorient when subjected to heat or mechanical stress and generates about one volt through the Direct piezoelectric property. IC1 is designed as a voltage sensor with both the inputs tied through the capacitor C1.The non inverting input is connected to the ground through R1 to keep the output low in the standby state. The inputs of IC1 are very sensitive and even a minute change in voltage level will change the output state.

Circuit Project: PC Heat Monitor Circuit

In the standby mode, both the inputs of IC1 are balanced so that output remains low. When the Piezo element accepts heat, it generates a minute voltage which will upset the input balance and output swings high. This triggers LED and Buzzer. Capacitor C2 gives a short lag before the buzzer beeps to avoid false triggering. Warning beep continues till the piezo element cools.

Note: Enclose the circuit inside the PC with the piezo element close to the heat sink of the processor. Adjust the distance between the piezo element and heat sink so as to keep the circuit standby in the normal condition. The piezo element can sense a 10 degree rise in temperature from a distance of 5 cms. Power to the circuit can be tapped from the 12 volt line of SMPS.
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Celsius Thermometer

Category: Temperature Sensor, Thermometer
The circuit of the Celsius thermometer in the diagram is based on the well-known Type LM334 from National Semiconductor. This IC is a sensor that provides a current which is directly proportional to the temperature in kelvin (K). Unfortunately, this is a quantity that is not suitable for use in most practical applications. In the circuit, therefore, the sensor is set to 1µA K–1 with P1 and the offset of 273 K removed with P2.

Celsius Thermometer Circuit Diagram
Celsius Thermometer Circuit Diagram

This renders the output voltage of the sensor directly proportional to the temperature in degrees Celsius (° C) and this makes the circuit suitable for a great many applications (since 1K=1° C). Circuit IC2 is arranged as a 2.5 V reference voltage source. The current setting of the sensor is determined by the resistance between the adj(ust) pin and earth. If the earth is made virtual by raising the potential at the adj pin, the zero point can be shifted as desired. Calibration is best done by using a good domestic thermometer as reference.

Start by short-circuiting IC2 and adjusting P1 until the reading of meter M1 shows a current value numerically equal to the ambient temperature plus 273. If, say, the room temperature is 25°C, adjust P1 until the meter reads 298 µA. Then, remove the short-circuit from IC2 and adjust P2 until the meter reads a current whose numerical value is equal to the room temperature, that is, 25µA. The circuit draws a current not exceeding 1 mA, so using two AA size (AM3, MN1500, LR6, SP/HP7) batteries as power source will give a life of a couple of years.
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Digital Remote Thermometer

Category: Temperature Sensor, Thermometer
Remote sensor sends data via mains supply, Temperature range: 00.0 to 99.9 °C

This circuit is intended for precision centigrade temperature measurement, with a transmitter section converting to frequency the sensor's output voltage, which is proportional to the measured temperature. The output frequency bursts are conveyed into the mains supply cables. The receiver section counts the bursts coming from mains supply and shows the counting on three 7-segment LED displays. The least significant digit displays tenths of degree and then a 00.0 to 99.9 °C range is obtained. Transmitter-receiver distance can reach hundred meters, provided both units are connected to the mains supply within the control of the same light-meter.

Transmitter circuit operation:

IC1 is a precision centigrade temperature sensor with a linear output of 10mV/°C driving IC2, a voltage-frequency converter. At its output pin (3), an input of 10mV is converted to 100Hz frequency pulses. Thus, for example, a temperature of 20°C is converted by IC1 to 200mV and then by IC2 to 2KHz. Q1 is the driver of the power output transistor Q2, coupled to the mains supply by L1 and C7, C8.

Circuit diagram:

Transmitter parts:

R1 = 100K 1/4W Resistors
R2 = 47R 1/4W Resistor
R3 = 100K 1/4W Resistors
R4 = 5K 1/2W Trimmer Cermet
R5 = 12K 1/4W Resistor
R6 = 10K 1/4W Resistor
R7 = 6K8 1/4W Resistor
R8 = 1K 1/4W Resistors
R9 = 1K 1/4W Resistors

C1 = 220nF 63V Polyester Capacitor
C2 = 10nF 63V Polyester Capacitor
C3 = 1µF 63V Polyester Capacitor
C4 = 1nF 63V Polyester Capacitors
C5 = 2n2 63V Polyester Capacitor
C6 = 1nF 63V Polyester Capacitors
C7 = 47nF 400V Polyester Capacitors
C8 = 47nF 400V Polyester Capacitors
C9 = 1000µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor

D1 = 1N4148 75V 150mA Diode
D2 = 1N4002 100V 1A Diodes
D3 = 1N4002 100V 1A Diodes
D4 = 5mm. Red LED

IC1 = LM35 Linear temperature sensor IC
IC2 = LM331 Voltage-frequency converter IC
IC3 = 78L06 6V 100mA Voltage regulator IC

Q1 = BC238 25V 100mA NPN Transistor
Q2 = BD139 80V 1.5A NPN Transistor
T1 = 220V Primary, 12+12V Secondary 3VA Mains transformer
PL = Male Mains plug & cable
L1 = Primary (Connected to Q2 Collector): 100 turns
Secondary: 10 turns
Wire diameter: O.2mm. enameled
Plastic former with ferrite core. Outer diameter: 4mm.

Receiver circuit operation:

The frequency pulses coming from mains supply and safely insulated by C1, C2 & L1 are amplified by Q1; diodes D1 and D2 limiting peaks at its input. Pulses are filtered by C5, squared by IC1B, divided by 10 in IC2B and sent for the final count to the clock input of IC5. IC4 is the time-base generator: it provides reset pulses for IC1B and IC5 and enables latches and gate-time of IC5 at 1Hz frequency. It is driven by a 5Hz square wave obtained from 50Hz mains frequency picked-up from T1 secondary, squared by IC1C and divided by 10 in IC2A. IC5 drives the displays' cathodes via Q2, Q3 & Q4 at a multiplexing rate frequency fixed by C7. It drives also the 3 displays' paralleled anodes via the BCD-to-7 segment decoder IC6. Summing up, input pulses from mains supply at, say, 2KHz frequency, are divided by 10 and displayed as 20.0°C.

Circuit diagram:

Receiver Parts:

R1 = 100K 1/4W Resistor
R2 = 1K 1/4W Resistor
R3 = 12K 1/4W Resistors
R4 = 12K 1/4W Resistors
R5 = 47K 1/4W Resistor
R6 = 12K 1/4W Resistors
R8 = 12K 1/4W Resistors
R9-R15=470R 1/4W Resistors
R16 = 680R 1/4W Resistor

C1 = 47nF 400V Polyester Capacitors
C2 = 47nF 400V Polyester Capacitors
C3 = 1nF 63V Polyester Capacitors
C4 = 10nF 63V Polyester Capacitor
C7 = 1nF 63V Polyester Capacitors
C5 = 220nF 63V Polyester Capacitors
C6 = 220nF 63V Polyester Capacitors
C8 = 1000µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
C9 = 100pF 63V Ceramic Capacitor
C10 = 220nF 63V Polyester Capacitors

D1 = 1N4148 75V 150mA Diodes
D2 = 1N4148 75V 150mA Diodes
D3 = 1N4002 100V 1A Diodes
D4 = 1N4002 100V 1A Diodes
D5 = 1N4148 75V 150mA Diodes
D6 = Common-cathode 7-segment LED mini-displays
D7 = Common-cathode 7-segment LED mini-displays
D8 = Common-cathode 7-segment LED mini-displays

IC1 = 4093 Quad 2 input Schmitt NAND Gate IC
IC2 = 4518 Dual BCD Up-Counter IC
IC3 = 78L12 12V 100mA Voltage regulator IC
IC4 = 4017 Decade Counter with 10 decoded outputs IC
IC5 = 4553 Three-digit BCD Counter IC
IC6 = 4511 BCD-to-7-Segment Latch/Decoder/Driver IC

Q1 = BC239C 25V 100mA NPN Transistor
Q2 = BC327 45V 800mA PNP Transistors
Q3 = BC327 45V 800mA PNP Transistors
Q4 = BC327 45V 800mA PNP Transistors

PL = Male Mains plug & cable
T1 = 220V Primary, 12+12V Secondary 3VA Mains transformer
L1 = Primary (Connected to C1 & C2): 10 turns
Secondary: 100 turns
Wire diameter: O.2mm. enameled
Plastic former with ferrite core. Outer diameter: 4mm.

  • D6 is the Most Significant Digit and D8 is the Least Significant Digit.
  • R16 is connected to the Dot anode of D7 to illuminate permanently the decimal point.
  • Set the ferrite cores of both inductors for maximum output (best measured with an oscilloscope, but not critical).
  • Set trimmer R4 in the transmitter to obtain a frequency of 5KHz at pin 3 of IC2 with an input of 0.5Vcc at pin 7 (a digital frequency meter is required).
  • More simple setup: place a thermometer close to IC1 sensor, then set R4 to obtain the same reading of the thermometer in the receiver's display.
  • Keep the sensor (IC1) well away from heating sources (e.g. Mains Transformer T1).
  • Linearity is very good.
  • Warning! Both circuits are connected to 230Vac mains, then some parts in the circuit boards are subjected to lethal potential! Avoid touching the circuits when plugged and enclose them in plastic boxes.
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Heat Detector Alarm

Category: Alarms, Temperature Sensor
A very simple heat detector alarm electronic project can be designed using the UM3561 sound generator circuit and some other common electronic parts. This heat detector electronic circuit project uses a complementary pair comprising npn and pnp transistor to detect heat Collector of T1 transistor is connected to the base of the T2 transistor, while the collector of T2 transistor is connected to RL1 relay T3 and T4 transistors connected in darlington configuration are used to amplify the audio signal from the UM3561 ic.

Circuit Project: Heat detector alarm circuit using UM3561
Heat Detector Alarm Circuit Diagram

When the temperature close to the T1 transistor is hot , the resistance to the emitter –collector goes low and it starts conducting . In same time T2 transistor conducts , because its base is connected to the collector of T1 transistor and the RL1 relay energised and switches on the siren which produce a fire engine alarm sound.

This electronic circuit project must be powered from a 6 volts DC power supply , but the UM3561 IC is powered using a 3 volt zener diode , because the alarm sound require a 3 volts dc power supply. The relay used in this project must be a 6 volt / 100 ohms relay and the speaker must have a 8 ohms load and 1 watt power.
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